Material Quality Manual
This manual is provided to understand Fabric inspection process and requirements to deliver the highest possible quality as well as report all test results as per your Customer requirements.
Although this manual describes general quality requirements it is also expected manufacturers to develop a positive culture of quality.
This culture must begin with management commitment to prevention-based and continuous improvement- based quality systems including:
Allocating appropriate resources to ensure quality systems are effective
Encouraging active participation of all workers in improvement efforts
Ensuring that processes are stable, capable, and centred through the application
of statistical data analysis techniques
Documenting systems, processes, procedures, etc. as necessary to maintain effective operations
Quality Mission Statement
“Create consumer loyalty and integrity through an integrated Quality Strategy.”
Your Quality philosophy should be based on the following principles:
Establish clear, consumer-focused requirements
Plan for Defect-Free performance
Quality happens within every Process
Ensure the Process is capable of meeting the Customer requirements
Control the Process
Continually reduce Variation and factory Defective Rate
Prevention System Definitions:
Systems and procedures where your product engineering team works with
customer design/development groups to help identify and prevent failure modes in
Process of testing, evaluating and approving raw material to ensure that the manufacturing process is capable of producing material that always meets World
class customer specifications
Process of evaluating and approving finished goods to ensure that the manufacturing process is capable of producing product that always meet customer specifications.
Metrics & Strategic Reporting
Process of collecting internal product quality performance data to track performance and set priorities for corrective action on daily basis.
Greige Fabric Quality Requirements
This is a guideline to the factory for evaluating, grading and separating the outgoing quality of fabric to be used for your Clients.
This is important for the fabric manufacturers to note on what are the expectations of your customers about fabric quality.
This process also assists factories in detecting defects and preventing substandard fabric.
We have described widely recognized inspection procedure as a training framework for inspectors.
Our ultimate goal is to promote communication and align procedures between the factory and the customer to resolve quality problems.
The inspection area should be:
Open, clean and dry
All the inspection machines should be visible to Manager
Free enough to move incoming trolleys
The inspection machine should be equipped with a variable speed drive, a Electronic Length Counter & a mechanical counter meter, and an undercarriage light to see through the construction and an overhead light to inspect the face of the fabric.
Every machine should be attached with Weighing Scale and need to check actual GSM Vs Allowed GSM
Inspection Speed: The frame should be capable of running up to 27 meters per minute) and should have both forward and reverse controls.
Viewing Distance: The inspection should be performed from an observation distance of 2 to 4 feet (60 to 120 centimeters) so as to get full vision of the fabric width.
Lighting: Overhead Customer required lighting is recommended for the inspection.
The surface illumination level should be a minimum of 1075 lux (100 foot candles).
Calibration and Maintenance
Inspection frame should be included in your periodic maintenance plan.
All components of equipment which can output a quantifiably value needs to be calibrated annually e.g. Speed drive/ Counter/ Weight
Defect Stickers / Tags
Selvedge Defect Flags
Inspection Report Forms
Approved Item Swatch
Every Inspector is required to use the QC approved Fabric swatch in Inspection stage as a quality reference sample for hand-feel/ Color and aesthetics verifications in bulk production.
This approved item swatch must be properly stored for use in quality comparison.
Keep a clean sample folder with appropriate information such as Customer name, item number, color name, date approved, Approved test report, Production SPEC, and any other relevant information.
Color Standard: Check the head-middle-end sample in the light box against the lab-dip under primary & secondary light source. This process should be done once for each color inspected.
Shading within the roll: Check for shading at the beginning, in the middle and at the end of each roll inspected, using the head-middle-end sample for comparison.
Side to center
Side to side
End to end
Color Continuity Card: Check for color consistency between the dye-lots. Cut a small sample (about 2 x 2 inches or 5 x 5 centimeters) from the left side, the center and the right side of the head-middle-end sample of each inspected dye-lot and attach to the color continuity card. Ensure that cards are labeled. Check the samples against approved lab-dip. Note any significant variation of shade from roll to roll.
Inspection Procedure / Execution
It is compulsory vendor to inspect 100% of all outgoing shipments, identify, label and records defects and ship only first quality materials.
The Inspection team should be familiar with all inspection procedures and standards to ensure that your internal inspection is capable of at least meeting or better exceeding customer expectations.
Color and Aesthetics
Cut a head-middle-end sample across the width of the fabric, preferably about 2 Meters inside of each dye-lot.
This sample will be used for color and aesthetic verification to ensure lot to lot, head to end fabric consistency.
Inspect overall hand-feel and appearance against customer approved item swatch in development stage for cleanliness, texture, recovery, drape, resilience, wrinkling, etc.
If the aesthetics does not match the sample, Inspector need send that much of fabric for reprocessing and re-inspection
It is inspection Manager’s responsibility to obtain the swatch from QC to ensure that the reference sample. This sample will be used by the Inspector for, hand-feel and aesthetics verification..
The reference Sample size is 12 x 12 inches (30 x 30 centimeters) cut out from the approved batch.
This reference sample must be properly stored for use in quality comparison. Keep a clean sample folder with appropriate information such as Customer name, item number, color name/code, date, batch number, and any other relevant information.
Once the color and aesthetics have been checked and approved, begin the visual inspection for defects.
Defects which are not desirable and are clearly detectable on the inspection frame will be assigned points as shown in the Four Point Table.
The Four Point system will be applied to all fabrics, i.e. woven, circular knit and warp knit.
Always inspect the side which will be used as the face in the finished garment. Mount the roll on the inspection frame with the face side up.
Measure the fabric width at the beginning, in the middle, and at the end of every roll.
If a variation in fabric width is found, call Inspection manager to determine if the fabric is usable and if a replacement is necessary.
At this point, the inspector should also check the condition of the selvedges. The selvedges should as per customer requirement, lay flat, be free of tension, and should not have a tendency to curl.
Measure and record the length of each roll inspected. Ensure the roll length is based on your customer specifications. If no specifications available, calculate GSM and roll weight should not exceed 75Kgs
Inspection for Defects
It is the responsibility to train and/or conduct internal certification for the inspectors according to international quality requirements.
The responsibility lies with the inspectors to inspect each material type based on Four Point System before shipped.
Four Point System
A widely recognized inspection method frequently used in the textile industry.
It is a technique issued by the American Society for Testing & Materials with reference to the designation ASTM D5 430-93
Start the Inspection Machine and inspect for defects. Run the frame at 8-15 minute.
If a defect is observed:
Faults are classified and scored with penalty points of 1, 2, 3 and 4, according to their size and significance.
Each defect should be counted as a separate defect even if the nature is the same and then based on the points allocated to each defect, total points should be calculated.
Four Point Table
|Vertical Defects(along the length)Length Points||Horizontal Defects(along the width)Width Points|
|DEFECT SIZE||POINTS||DEFECT SIZE||POINTS|
|0.1 to 3.0 in (0.1 to8.0 cm)||1||0.1 to 3.0 in (0.1 to8.0 cm)||1|
|3.1 to 6.0 in (8.1 to15.0 cm)||2||3.1 to 6.0 in (8.1 to15.0 cm)||2|
|6.1 to 9.0 in (15.1 to 23.0 cm)||3||6.1 to 9.0 in (15.1 to 23.0 cm)||3|
|9.1 to 36.0 in (23.1 to 92.0 cm)||4||9.1 to full width (above 23.1 cm)||4|
|A maximum of 4 points may be assigned to any one linear yard), regardless of thenumber or size of the individual defects.|
|For a continuous lengthwise running defect, 4 points and 1 defect will be assignedto each linear yard where the defect exceeds 9 inches (23 centimeters).|
|Example: Short End/ barre effect on the full roll in 100linear yards: 400 points should beassigned with 100 defects|
|Mark the defect at the selvedge and/or at the defect.|
|Record the defect and the assigned points on the inspection worksheet.|
Complete the worksheet and calculate the total points of each inspected roll and the total of the inspected linear yards/meters. With this information use the appropriate formula below to calculate the Average Points
Defect Points Per 100 linear yards or linear meters or Square Yards/Meters
Points/100 Linear yd2 = Total Points of inspected roll x 36 X 100
Total Inspected Yards x Fabric Width in inches
Points per 100 Square Yards = Total Points for the roll x 3600
Inspected Yards x Cuttable Fabric Width (inch)
Points per 100 Square Meters = Total Points for the roll x 100,000
Inspected Meters x Cuttable Fabric Width (MM)
Total Shipment Points per 100 Sq. Yards = Total Average Points per Linear Yard x 3600
Shipment Inspected Yards x Cuttable Fabric Width (inch)
Total Shipment Points per 100 Sq. Meters = Total Average Points per Linear Meter x 10,000
Shipment Inspected Meters x Cuttable Fabric Width (MM)
Factory will evaluate a vendor’s quality performance based on the point count system,
using the following guideline:
Accept / Reject Procedure
Fabric Manufacturer should not ship any roll or shipment with defect points exceed the evaluation guidelines specifically mentioned by the customer.
Sometimes Inspection Manager might communicate with Customer prior to the shipment if the average points of any roll shows a higher number than allowed.
The inspection is intended to determine the shipment quality and to capture information for quality performance evaluation of fabric manufactured.
One inspection report should be completed for each Item / color inspected and send a copy of the Inspection Report to customer prior to or with shipment.
Inspection Report information containing inspection date / shipped date / season year / buy month / garment factory / order number / item number / batch number / dye lot number / color code and color name / inspection points / inspection results / yardages / weight / width … etc. should be clearly visible on documentation with English language
Records should be kept at least 2 years and available to your customer upon request.